Questions & Answers from the webinar
Q. What does Linde think about the cost development of hydrogen?
A. Linde shares the general perspective from the market when talking about scaling up production sizes, it is expected to see both reduced returns of CAPEX (Capital Expenditure) and OPEX (Operational Expenditure).
CAPEX due to large projects/economy of scale and large-scale production plants with large series production and automation, e.g., ITM Power Gigafactory in Sheffield.
OPEX due to improved efficiency in the electrolysis system and lower prices in renewable electricity (solar and wind).
On the liquefaction side we expect to see reduced prices as production is scaling up.
Q. Will safety be a showstopper for hydrogen as a fuel in the maritime sector?
A. The move to hydrogen specific safety systems is a wide question. Land based installations do follow local legislation and standards. Even though hydrogen have been in use in the industry for quite long time there is still efforts to be done when hydrogen applications come closer to consumers. Risk assessments and their approval at local authorities do typically follow general chemical regulations and the applications will then be evaluated case by case. Different consulting firms will support in projects.
For the maritime industry the standardization work is ongoing. IMO will update IGF code considering hydrogen. Additionally, to design issues for operation will be important to consider. IMO committees among others MSC will issue guidelines for ship design and partially operation. STWC looks into guidelines for the operational parts. The classification societies are also working with their rules. Before the appropriate rules exist the design of hydrogen powered vessels can be done based on the Alternative Design risk assessment process as defined by IMO.
For the equipment manufacturers (ex. prime movers) they will assess the issues for their product. These will of course have connection issues to consider for the ship design consultant.
Engine manufacturers are currently testing in laboratories with hydrogen and other e-fuels and are estimated to in coming years have release of engines for purchase / modification.
Important in this stage is to at early design stage together with the ship design consultant and ship operator to open discussion to classification societies.
Q. In what way do we believe that the Norled MF Hydra solution will be taken on in the shipping industry?
A. We see this as a reference solution. We see other cases choosing a similar solution where the Hydra version is being scaled up for tank size and FC capacities to accommodate higher energy requirements for larger ships. Wilhelmsen is adopting a similar design for the coastal ro-ro vessel with 3 tons daily LH2 requirement. Fuel cell approval for maritime use is being addressed with Hydra and FC rules are being developed based on the FC technology development for Hydra.
Q. Why do we need to increase the temperature of the liquified hydrogen to turn it into gas through the water bath vaporizer?
The fuel cell requirement has predefined requirement (between 5 and 20 degrees) of the hydrogen, and we store the hydrogen in a liquified manner in -253 degrees. So, to transfer that liquid to a gas we need this water bath vaporizer.